The Yellow-rumped Cacique, scientifically named Cacicus cela, is a strikingly colorful bird native to the neotropical regions of South and Central America. It is a member of the Icteridae family, known for its vibrant plumage and vocal abilities. The bird is easily recognizable by its bright yellow rump, black body, and patches of yellow on the shoulders and head. The cacique’s bill is pointed and slightly curved, typical of its species, and is used adeptly for foraging and nest building.


These birds are known for their complex social structures and are often found in large colonies. They are highly vocal, using various calls and songs integral to their social interactions. Yellow-rumped Caciques are also notable for their unique nesting habits, building long, hanging nests from branches over water or open areas, which protects them from predators.


The habitat of the Yellow-rumped Cacique is varied, including forest edges, plantations, and grasslands. They are adaptable birds that thrive in altered landscapes as long as trees are available for nesting. This adaptability has been key to their survival in regions with common deforestation and habitat alteration.


Physical Description:

The Yellow-rumped Cacique is a medium-sized bird, with males slightly larger than females. The most distinctive feature is its bright yellow rump, which contrasts sharply with its predominantly black body. The male typically has more extensive yellow markings on the head and shoulders than the female. Their eyes are brown, and the legs and feet are black, contrasting their vivid plumage.

In addition to their colorful appearance, these birds are known for their strong, conical bills, which adapt to their diverse diet. The plumage of juveniles is duller than that of adults, and they acquire the full, vibrant colors as they mature. The yellow rump and wing patches are particularly noticeable during flight, making them easily identifiable even at a distance.

Lifespan: Wild: ~5 Years || Captivity: ~10 Years

Weight: Male: 2.5-2.8 oz (70-80 g) || Female: 2.2-2.5 oz (62-70 g)

Length: Male: 11-11.8 in (28-30 cm) || Female: 10.2-10.6 in (26-27 cm)

Height: Male: 9-11 inches (23-28 cm) || Female: 8-10 inches (20-25 cm)

Native Habitat:

The Yellow-rumped Cacique is native to various habitats in South and Central America. They are commonly found in tropical and subtropical forests, forest edges, savannas, and even cultivated areas and gardens. Their preference for areas with a mixture of open spaces and trees is linked to their nesting and foraging habits.

These birds are highly adaptable and can thrive in altered landscapes if suitable nesting and feeding sites are available. They often take advantage of secondary growth and disturbed habitats, which can provide abundant food resources.

Climate Zones:
Biogeographical Realms:

Diet & Feeding Habits:

Yellow-rumped Caciques have a diverse diet, primarily consisting of fruits, nectar, and insects. They are known to forage in groups, often joining mixed-species flocks. This social foraging behavior increases their efficiency in locating food and protects them from predators. Their diet varies seasonally, depending on the availability of different food sources.

In addition to foraging in trees, these birds feed on the ground, especially when consuming fallen fruits or hunting for insects. Their strong bills are well adapted for extracting nectar from flowers and capturing and consuming various insects. This varied diet plays a crucial role in their survival across different habitats.

Mating Behavior:

Mating Description:

Yellow-rumped Caciques are polygynous, with males often mating with multiple females. During the breeding season, males establish territories and display to attract females. These displays include vocalizations, physical postures, and showing off their bright plumage.

The female is responsible for building the distinctive hanging nests woven from plant fibers and suspended from tree branches. The nests are often built over water or open areas, protecting them from tree-climbing predators. After laying 2 to 3 eggs, the female incubates them and is solely responsible for feeding the chicks once they hatch.

Reproduction Season:

Birth Type:

Pregnancy Duration:

~14 Days (Incubation)

Female Name:


Male Name:


Baby Name:


Social Structure Description:

The Yellow-rumped Cacique is a highly social bird, often found in groups, particularly during the breeding season. They form large colonies, with several nests clustered in a small area. This colonial nesting behavior provides safety in numbers and increases the efficiency of detecting and deterring predators.

Their social behavior extends to foraging, where they often join mixed-species flocks. These flocks provide increased foraging opportunities and protection from predators. The complex vocalizations of Yellow-rumped Caciques play a key role in their social interactions, used for communication within the group and during mating displays.


Conservation Status:
Population Trend:


Wild: Unknown || Captivity: Unknown


The Yellow-rumped Cacique’s stable population status is a testament to the species’ remarkable adaptability. They are found across a wide geographic range in South and Central America. They thrive in various habitats, from dense tropical forests to open savannas and even human-altered environments like plantations and gardens. This versatility in habitat preference is crucial to their widespread distribution and population stability.

Despite their current stability, the Yellow-rumped Cacique faces challenges due to ongoing habitat destruction and alteration, primarily driven by deforestation and agricultural expansion. Such changes can lead to the loss of critical nesting and foraging habitats, potentially impacting their ability to sustain their populations in affected areas. Moreover, the use of pesticides in agricultural areas poses a risk to their food sources, particularly affecting insect populations that form a part of their diet. Climate change also looms as a long-term threat, with potential impacts on their natural habitats and the ecological balance of the regions they inhabit.

Population Threats:

The primary threat to the Yellow-rumped Cacique is habitat destruction and alteration, particularly in tropical forest regions. Deforestation for agriculture, logging, and urban expansion can reduce their available nesting and foraging habitats. Additionally, pesticide use in agricultural areas can impact their food sources, particularly insects.

Climate change may also pose a long-term threat by altering their habitats and the availability of food resources. The effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems are complex and could have implications for their survival and distribution.

Conservation Efforts:

Conservation efforts for the Yellow-rumped Cacique primarily focus on habitat protection and restoration. This includes the preservation of tropical and subtropical forests, as well as efforts to minimize habitat destruction and fragmentation. Maintaining a mosaic of forested and open areas is important for their nesting and foraging needs.

Educational programs and community involvement are crucial in promoting conservation and sustainable land-use practices. Research and monitoring their populations and habitats provide valuable conservation planning and action data.

Additional Resources:

Fun Facts

  • Yellow-rumped Caciques are talented mimics and can imitate the sounds of other bird species and environmental noises.
  • Their nests are a marvel of bird architecture and play a crucial role in protecting their eggs and chicks from predators and the elements.
  • These birds have a complex vocal communication system, with different calls for alarm, mating, and social interactions.
  • The males’ bright yellow rump patch is key in attracting mates during the breeding season.
  • They are important seed dispersers, helping maintain the health and diversity of their ecosystems.
  • Yellow-rumped Caciques are often found near water sources, which are crucial in their feeding and nesting habits.
  • In some cultures, they are admired for their beauty and vocal abilities and are considered symbols of good luck.
  • Their adaptability to altered environments has helped them thrive in areas where other species may struggle.
  • The species plays an important role in the ecological balance of their habitats, controlling insect populations and pollinating flowers.
  • They are often the subject of birdwatching and ecotourism, drawing attention to the importance of conserving their natural habitats.